Conference Workshops

Francesca Strik Lievers

Postdoctoral researcher, University of Genoa
Metaphor Identification and Annotation: The Case Of Synaesthesia
Parallel session 1: 11:00 am – 12:30 pm, 27th June (Wednesday)

How can we identify and consistently annotate metaphors in texts? Many different procedures have been proposed, ranging from manual annotation to computational methods, but the task still poses many challenges. In this tutorial, we will conduct a metaphor identification exercise, and use it as a basis to discuss some such challenges and possible ways to address them.

We will work on a specific type of metaphor, linguistic synaesthesia: a metaphor in which a perceptual experience referring to one sense is described by linguistic means that usually refer to a different sense, as in sweet voice. Compared to other types of metaphors, synaesthesia is somewhat easier to find in texts, even semi-automatically, as the concepts involved are known in advance (they all refer to – different – sensory modalities) and are expressed by a relatively limited set of lexemes. Yet, synaesthesia identification too faces problems, most of which emerge in the identification of all types of metaphors. For instance, should we deal with conventional and living metaphors in the same way? And can we disentangle metaphor from other figures, such as metonymy? Are there intrinsic limits for metaphor identification procedures?

The tutorial is organized as follows: a) an introduction, first to metaphor identification and annotation, and then to synaesthesia and the method that we will use to identify it; b) hands-on work on sample texts to find instances of synaesthesia; c) critical assessment of the results followed by a discussion of directions that research in this field may take.

Niklas Törneke

psychiatrist and licensed psychotherapist
Metaphor in Practice
Parallel session 1: 11:00 am – 12:30 pm, 27th June (Wednesday)

In many modern models of psychotherapy metaphor is given a central position in the change process. This is very much so in versions of CBT, such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). In many manuals for therapy lists of possible metaphors, targeting different problems, are offered as an aid to the therapist. But what about the process of metaphor use? Can you use some basic principles to go beyond lists of specific metaphors to a more profound understanding of the change process and work with metaphor on the basis of this understanding?

This workshop will present three such principles and discuss how they can be applied using metaphor. Some time will also be given for the participants to practice. The principles are based on modern behavior analysis, including relational frame theory (RFT), a theory of human language.
The three principles are:

Helping others to contact the relationship between their current strategy and the consequences they experience (functional analysis)
Helping others to unhook from problematic psychological phenomena
Helping others to take direction towards important things in their lives.

Even though the principles have been developed in the context of psychotherapy (especially ACT) they are not exclusive to that context but can also be used in any counseling situation.

Törneke, N (2017) Metaphor in practice. A professional’s guide to using the science of language in psychotherapy. New Harbinger Publications.

Törneke, N. Luciano,C., Barnes-Holmes, Y. & Bond, F. (2016) RFT for clinical practice. Three Core Strategies in Understanding and Treating Human Suffering. In Zettle, R., Hayes, S., C., Barnes-Holmes, D. & Biglan, A. Handbook of contextual behavioural Science (p.254-272) . Wiley Blackwell.

Allison Creed

Research fellow, lecturer, University of Southern Queensland

Gudrun Reijnierse

Assistant professor, Radboud University Nijmegen

Lettie Dorst

Lecturer, Leiden University
There’s a Metaphor in my Wine and She’s Got Legs!
Parallel session 2: 2:00 pm – 3:30 pm, 27th June (Wednesday)

In this interactive workshop, we present a theoretical, methodological, and gastronomic introduction to metaphor identification in the genre of wine reviews, using the Metaphor Identification Procedure Vrije Universiteit (MIPVU) and the Deliberate Metaphor Identification Procedure (DMIP).

The knowledge domain of wine and the genre of wine reviews, also referred to as tasting notes, provide the platform to demonstrate the potential for metaphor—both potentially deliberate and non-deliberate—to transform and translate peoples sensory and emotional responses to wine. At the same time, it provides the opportunity to study how (deliberate) metaphor identification works in highly specialized, yet publicly accessible texts. Students, researchers, and practitioners will be introduced to the process of wine appreciation and develop basic understanding of and skills in performing metaphor identification in wine reviews. Participants will work in collaborative panels for a wine tasting and lightning review writing session. The workshop will culminate in a prize for the best lightning review.

Reijnierse, W.G., Burgers, C., Krennmayr, T. et al. (2017). DMIP: A Method for Identifying Potentially Deliberate Metaphor in Language Use. Corpus Pragmatics, 1(3), p. 1-19.

Steen, G. J., Dorst, A. G., Herrmann, J. B., Kaal, A., Krennmayr, T., & Pasma, T. (2010). A method for linguistic metaphor identification: From MIP to MIPVU (Vol. 14). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing.


Melissa Johnson Carissimo

Creator, Sense-Metaphor Interviewing and The Metaphor Mirror, Research and Project Development, Ospedale San Martino-Ist, Ospedale Galliera, Italy
Burnout: Awareness and Prevention Through Metaphor-Based Dialogue
Parallel session 2: 2:00 pm – 3:30 pm, 27th June (Wednesday)

In this introduction to Sense-Metaphor Interviewing, participants will experience a metaphor-based approach to the awareness and prevention of burnout. Addressing the syndrome through embodied metaphor, they will learn how to access energy, reduce stress, define personally resonant goals, clarify individual and collaborative project work, and engage empathic, non-judgmental listening intrinsic to “metaphor mirroring”.

Through a codified Q&A process, the Sense-Metaphor Interview guides an intuitive, metaphor based identification, verbalization, and regulation of present-moment self-states and perspective. Participants will 1) frame and create their own “metaphor mirrors,” which intuitively emergent texts are self-portraits of the present moment self-state and perceptions, to be 2) read aloud, commented on—avoiding interpretation, analysis, personal associations or explanation—and 3) revised—in a process toward insight and transformation—by their authors and the group. Individually and together, through fresh introspection and discussion, participants discover answers to questions like, “What do I see?” “What do I want and need here?” “How to move forward?” and “How best to collaborate?”

Concluding discussion will invite attendees to consider whether, how, and what it feels like when, the “experiencing” of metaphor triggers mechanisms which are simultaneously: perceptive and descriptive; rational and intuitive (Daniel Kahneman); metacognitive and introspective (Jon Kabat-Zinn); independent and intersubjective (Vittorio Gallese); self-aware and non-associative (Mark Williams); analytical and sensory (Eugene Gendlin); narrative and curative (Rita Charon); propositional and implicational (John Teasdale); dependent on deliberate and non-deliberate (Gerard Steen) metaphoric illumination of affect targets; and generating transformative perspective by accessing both sensory source and affect target domains (Lakoff & Johnson) through purposeful, bi-directional bridging.